Sceptic to Champion: Air Ticket Arena on Angel Investment Network

Fundraising on Angel Investment Network – A User Story:

Kresimir Budinski first reached out to me through LinkedIn. He is the founder of Air Ticket Arena – the first fully-automated platform allowing passengers to bid for unsold seats on scheduled flights; and helping airlines to recuperate some of the £120 billion in lost sales each year through unsold seats.

He recently closed a £350,000 of seed fundraising through Angel Investment Network.

Kresimir, or ‘The Bishop’, as he is affectionately known by his team, complimented me on my article about SEIS & EIS Tax relief. He had apparently used it as an explainer throughout his fundraising. Both for investors he had found through Angel Investment Network and other channels.

I thanked him and wished him luck with the fundraising. And we left it at that.

Messages like this are relatively frequent (depending on the quality of my article!). So I didn’t think any more of it.

But I was to hear a lot more from Kresimir and the story behind his fundraising. A few months later, pleased with his progress (now overfunding), he shared his fundraising experiences with me in full. It struck such a chord that I had to share the story.

It’s a tale of how courage through scepticism can bring great opportunity. And it’s a useful case study for anyone considering looking for investors on the Angel Investment Network platform, and more importantly, for anyone fundraising in general.

So, in the charismatic words of their Head of Marketing Grgomir ‘George’ Garić, the story of Air Ticket Arena’s fundraising journey from intense initial scepticism to success….

Air ticket arena fundraising

Part 1: Fundraising Scepticism

I had always considered investors a type of mythical creature, living somewhere in a distant fantasy land, creasing themselves with derisive laughter at most investment proposals. By investors, I mean real investors who can offer advice as well as capital. Not just people who masquerade as investors because they have a bit of cash.

Of course, I had heard about the likes of Facebook, Uber, Airbnb, and hundreds of other projects backed by investors – but I had never met anyone who would actually boost my bank account.

Except for my wife, of course.

In my life before Air Ticket Arena, I had met many who claimed to be investors. But few of them understood the symbiosis required between entrepreneur and investor to make a partnership mutually motivating. The interaction between idea and capital needs to be good for both the idea and the capital. The idea needs to grow and so does the value of the capital.

Too many investors wanted to buy into projects at way below the value of the idea and all the preceding hard work. They refused to realise that this was not optimal for the business and therefore not optimal for their investment.

Given these early experiences with “investors”, my approach to any kind of investor was always going to be like visiting an 18th-century dentist. Suspicious in the extreme.

Part 2: Misplaced Hope

So, when I started working on Air Ticket Arena and Kresimir, suggested fundraising our seed round through Angel Investment Network. I thought it was the beginning of the end.

I sincerely believed that Angel Investment Network, despite their 13-year history and impressive track record, was just another portal where anyone – even my mother – could masquerade as an investor.

So why did we go with them?

Sometime in 2009, a seemingly beautiful thing happened. Kickstarter kickstarted. This was the first time I had heard about crowdfunding.

The theory seemed inspired to me. This was a real innovation in the investment scene which promised a more efficient process for both investors and entrepreneurs. And promised to harness the power of the crowd with all the social proof that can bring.

Then equity crowdfunding platforms like Crowdcube and Seedrs emerged. Icing on the cake. Or so I thought.
Fundraising through crowdfunding

I had heard complaints about these platforms from founders who had tried them. But I dismissed them as over-fussy.

When Kresimir asked me to prepare a crowdfunding campaign on Crowdcube for Air Ticket Arena, it was a joyous occasion and I dove into the work with relish.

We prepared almost everything for the campaign and then one week before the launch, Crowdcube refused us. Their reason? We didn’t have a high street bank account. Right.

Not to be deterred, we immediately approached Seedrs hoping to re-purpose the material we had put so much effort into for the Crowdcube campaign. After a 15-minute call, they claimed that our valuation was too high to run.

My high hopes were thoroughly misplaced and I found myself floundering in a sense of gloom about the prospects of fundraising. Not simply for myself, but also for other regular people who do not have access to investors through their personal network.

It was in this state of despondency that Kresimir insisted we chance our hand on Angel Investment Network. You can imagine my reaction.

I already considered this platform inferior to the likes of Crowdcube and Seedrs who had just thoroughly disappointed me.

Thus, it was without much hope and intense reluctance that I agreed to create a pitch on Angel Investment network…

Part 3: Faith Rewarded

fundraising

Six months later, we have raised £350,000 and filled our seed round. The strength of the discussions means that we are now overfunding as I write this.

At this point, while we enjoy the security of fundraising mission accomplished and while the experience is still fresh in our minds, I thought it might be helpful to share some key findings from our campaign on Angel Investment Network.

– Are the investors active and real?

Most of the investors we spoke to were active and engaged in the investment community and had the capital to invest. Even those investors who did not ultimately invest provided useful feedback for us with which we were able to improve our pitch and even our business. The platform also monitors the activity of investor users. Anyone suspicious is removed pending investigation.

– How can I tell if an investor is really interested?

It will be straightforward to identify investors who are seriously interested. They will have read your pitch in detail and will ask the most pertinent questions so will stand out from the others.
It is also very important to do your own due diligence of any investor contact – you can be sure they’ll be doing it on you. So, don’t be afraid to ask people to identify themselves if their profile is not clear.

– How can I keep prospective investors interested?

When you are happy that a prospective investor’s interest is genuine, engage in dialogue with them in a clear manner. Your job is to clarify what you have written in your deck. Keep focused on it. Try to also give the impression of progress and momentum – update investors you’ve not heard back from as well as ones you actively talking to.

– What should I say about valuation?

Avoid any talk about valuations after a one-minute talk or a first email response. Send an investment package and give them up to a week to investigate the opportunity. An excellent counter-question is to ask them how much they want to earn? None of them gave us an exact answer.
When you do come to declare your valuation make sure that your reasons for it are clear and grounded in the reality of the space in which you are operating.

– What sort of investors should I aim for?

Expect that your investors will more likely be from a similar industry to your project. If it is a project from the travel industry, then more than likely the investors will come from the travel industry. These investors will certainly be most helpful to you. However, there are many investors who are interested in investing in an area but are not necessarily experts e.g. Bankers interested in AI. So be prepared for this too.

– Do I need to have all the legal stuff prepared?

Make a clear legal pathway for investors who make you an offer of investment. Your investment contracts need to prepared and ready to send. An offer is never really finalised until all the forms are signed and the money is in your account, so you don’t want to have any delay in sending over the necessary documents when an investor declares an offer.

– How much effort is required?

Prepare to invest time and some money to ensure your pitch is as good as possible and that it gets the exposure it needs to raise the capital you need.

To be successful your pitch needs to be excellent and you need to market it well. We wrote 50+ articles explaining our concept from a variety of angles which we shared across social media channels. Angel Investment Network were very willing to re-share these posts which helped to create a buzz.

What I want people to understand from our story is that anyone with a good idea can raise money from angel investors. It requires dedication and hard work, but so does running a successful business!

At this point, on behalf of the whole team at Angel Investment Network, I’d like to thank Kresimir, George and the guys at Air Ticket Arena for taking the time to share this. All the best with the business!

Want to know more about Air Ticket Arena?

Check out their explainer video below:

Want to share your experience on Angel Investment Network and get featured as part of this user story series?

Please contact me on oliver@angelinvestmentnetwork.co.uk or on Twitter

Women in Tech: Success & the Future…

We recently learned that Pivigo is one of 15 of the UK’s fastest growing tech companies founded by women selected to visit Silicon Valley.

The trip is part of an initiative to build ties with the US tech scene. The other firms heading to Silicon Valley include:

All are showing an annual growth rate of at least 118%.

Pivigo is a data science marketplace founded by the remarkable Dr Kim Nilsson. Their mission is to connect “…data scientists and businesses across the world…to revolutionise the way we work, live and stay healthy.”

Dr Kim left her role as an astronomer on the Hubble Space Telescope to complete an MBA and pursue a career in business. The move was a good one.

Since she founded Pivigo in 2013 the company has:

  • Raised nearly £1m in funding (£300k through our investors on Angel Investment Network!)
  • Become the world’s largest community of data scientists.
  • Completed over 80 data science projects to date. (Clients include KPMG, Barclays, British Gas, M&S and Royal Mail.)
  • Started Europe’s largest data science training programme S2DS (Science to Data Science). The programme supports career transitions of PhDs and MScs into data science roles.

pivigo data science women

Kim’s transition from academia to top founder is part of what makes her story so impressive and why, no doubt, she was a good choice to meet with executives from Apple, Google, Instagram and LinkedIn. Sherry Coutu CBE, the founder of Silicon Valley Comes to the UK, and the London Mayor’s office made the selection.

This link building through the UK’s most talented female founders comes at a time of high interest in the role of women in the growth of the European and UK tech sectors. Figures reported by LinkedIn and Founders4Schools show that:

  • Female-led companies have helped add £3bn to the economy over the past year.
  • The number of female-led companies with turnover of £250m+ grew by 14% in the same period.

But what about women business angels?

Despite the flourishing community of female founders and executives, only a small number are using their business acumen to invest in small businesses.

As a result, the UKBAA in partnership with Angel Academe, a network of female business angels, is conducting new research. They want to understand the barriers perceived by women about angel investing. The survey is being hosted and analysed by the the CASS Business School in London.

This research is also part of a their new Europe-wide project called “Women Business Angels for Europe’s Entrepreneurs”. The project will enable them to review the situation in Europe as well as the UK.

UKBAA logo women
The results will give important insight into how, as a community, we can engage more women in angel investing. Off the back of the research, the UKBAA plans to develop a programme with the goal of doubling the number of female angel investors in the UK over the next two years.

If you’re female and involved in startups, please do your bit for this iniative and fill out the 10 minute survey here.

Thanks!

SEIS and EIS Tax Relief Explained with a little help from Star Wars…

SEIS and EIS are the given acronyms for the generous tax breaks the UK government offers to investors in startup companies. (Seed) Enterprise Investment Scheme. The company must be UK registered and meet certain eligibility requirements. Eligibility is a great way to incentivize investors because it reduces their risk. Dramatically.

As it’s May the 4th. As in May the Fourth be with you. As in Star Wars Day. I thought it appropriate to share an article I wrote explaining the benefits of SEIS and EIS with a few lame Star Wars puns thrown in. You know, to keep it, well, Light.

**This article is relevant for companies registered in the UK only. However, companies registered outside of the UK may find it useful as there may be similar tax breaks offered by their local government.**

What are SEIS & EIS Tax breaks?

Investing in startup companies is generally much riskier than buying shares in much larger more established companies, although the returns are potentially much larger. As a means of offsetting this risk for investors and thereby incentivising them to invest, the UK government offers two attractive tax breaks known as SEIS and EIS (the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme; and its parent the Enterprise Investment Scheme).

The tax breaks are very generous to investors and have been instrumental in helping the startup industry grow in the UK. As a result, investors now place high value on companies that have qualified for SEIS & EIS.

Because of this, we recommend that all UK companies raising through our platform seek ‘advanced assurance’ for SEIS/EIS if they think they will qualify. As a general rule, if you consider your company early stage then you probably qualify for both, or at least EIS.

What’s SEIS?

HMRC gives the following overview:

“…[SEIS] is designed to help small, early-stage companies raise equity finance by offering tax reliefs to individual investors who purchase new shares in those companies.”

Startups who qualify will be eligible to offer up to £150,000 in SEIS shares to investors.

What are the principal benefits for investors?

  • SEIS is incredibly generous and investors will get 50% tax relief per tax year on investments up to £100,000. (Relief is given each year, but the shares must be held for at least 3 years)
  • Investors will also get Capital gains exemption on the disposal of assets
  • There is a ‘carry back’ facility which allows investors to treat shares as if they were acquired in the previous tax year. Hence the relief can be claimed for the tax year before the investment.

Example:

Angel Investor Skywalker invests £100,000 into ‘Force for Good’, a ground-breaking social enterprise startup which qualifies for SEIS. For the given tax year, Skywalker has a tax liability of £50,000. Because of his SEIS shares he gets 50% of the value of his investment in relief, so £50,000.

This means he pays £0 in tax rather than the £50,000 he owes in tax. This situation is irrespective of how well the company does.

If the company does well, Skywalker would also qualify for exemption from Capital Gains tax (up to £100,000) on the profit provided it is reinvested.

If the company folds, Skywalker will still receive his £50,000 in tax relief meaning only half his initial investment of £100,000 is at risk. When the company folds, he will also be given loss relief of 45% of the ‘at risk’ capital. 45% of £50,000 is £22,500.

So if the company folds, Skywalker will only have lost £27,500 even though he invested £100,000. That’s relief of 72.5%!
SEIS

Does your company qualify?

N.B. These tax breaks are only available to UK based companies; investors do not need to be UK resident but must have some UK tax liability against which to set the tax relief.

For a company to qualify for the SEIS scheme it must meet a number of qualification tests. The list below is not comprehensive as the rules in place are often quite detailed and nuanced, but it gives a helpful, broad picture:

  • Permanent UK Base- your company must have a permanent UK office or the owner must be a UK resident. This must remain the case for three years from when SEIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must not be listed on the stock exchange at the time the SEIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must have fewer than 25 full-time employees at the time the SEIS shares are issued.
  • The gross assets must not exceed £200k at the time the SEIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must be early stage in that it must not be continuing a trade that is more than two years old at the time the SEIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must not have raised money through EIS or VCT schemes in the three years prior to the SEIS share issue.
  • The funds raised must be spent within three years.
  • Your company must be independent i.e. it must not be controlled by any other company or anyone associated with that company.
  • Your company must not be a member of a partnership

To get formal approval of SEIS eligibility you need to fill out an SEIS1 form and send it to HMRC. Download the form and the notes here.

EIS

What’s EIS?

EIS is the parent of SEIS. The principle is the same – to encourage investors to invest in early stage companies by offering them a generous tax break based on the sum they invest.

When the scheme was launched in 1993 the then Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Michael Portillo, said;

“The purpose of Enterprise Investment Schemes is to recognise that unquoted trading companies can often face considerable difficulties in realising relatively small amounts of share capital. The new scheme is intended to provide a well-targeted means for some of those problems to be overcome.”

EIS is less generous in terms of relief but it is easier for companies to qualify for and there is a larger quota available for eligible companies to offer investors. 

Startups are able to offer up to £2,000,000 in EIS shares.

What are the benefits for investors?

  • Can invest up to £1,000,000 a year in EIS shares.
  • Investors will get 30% tax relief per tax year
  • Any gain is exempt from Capital Gains tax provided the shares have been held for at least 3 years.
  • Loss relief via tax liability upon disposal of shares for a loss
  • Capital gains tax on assets can be deferred if the gain is re-invested in EIS shares
  • ‘Carry back’ facility so the shares can act as tax relief for the previous tax year

Example:

Angel Investor Vader invests £100,000 into ‘Death Star Inc’, a highly disruptive Fintech startup which qualifies for EIS. 

For the given tax year, Vader has a tax liability of £50,000. Because of his EIS shares he gets 30% of the value of his investment in relief, so £30,000. This means he pays £20,000 in tax rather than the £50,000 he owes in tax. This situation is irrespective of how well the company does.

If the company folds, Vader will still receive his £30,000 in tax relief meaning only £70,000 of his initial investment is at risk. When the company folds, he will also be given loss relief of 45% of the ‘at risk’ capital. 45% of £70,000 is £31,500.

So if the company folds, Vader will only have lost £38,500 even though he invested £100,000. That’s relief of 61.5%!

Does your company qualify?

To qualify for EIS your company must satisfy the following criteria:

  • Permanent UK Base- your company must have a permanent UK office or the owner must be a UK resident. This must remain the case for three years from when EIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must not be listed on the stock exchange at the time the EIS shares are issued.
  • Your company must have fewer than 250 full-time employees at the time the EIS shares are issued.
  • The gross assets must not exceed £15 million at the time the EIS shares are issued.
  • The funds raised must be spent within three years.
  • Your company must be independent i.e. it must not be controlled by any other company or anyone associated with that company.
  • Your company must not be a member of a partnership

The full criteria and guidance on how to apply for advanced assurance can be found here on the HMRC website here.

SEIS-EIS

Summary:

If you’re an early stage company registered in the UK and you’re raising money, you really should get advanced assurance for both SEIS and EIS. It can seem a little complicated, but in effect, all you need to do is submit the correct forms to HMRC and let them work out if you qualify.

You can be sure that all your competitors will be doing it – investors are far more likely to invest in an early stage company if they have the guaranteed risk mitigation that SEIS and EIS offer.

This article was originally written by Oliver Jones for Angel Investment Network‘s Learn centre. You can view the original and other similar articles covering all topics related to startup fundraising and investment here.

Business Funding Show Event – Canary Wharf 23rd February

Angel Investment Network will once again be joining a host of other companies from the startup investment space at the latest Business Funding Show on 23rd February near Canary Wharf tube station.

PICTURE with Logos

Attendees will be given the opportunity to:

– Meet famous entrepreneurs like Mark Wright (BBC Apprentice Winner)
– Learn from Angel Investors such as Mike Greene (C4 Secret Millionaire)
– Meet a range of leading financial institutions
– Get free 1-2-1 with Top Investors & VCs
– Attend talks from industry experts

Wondering what it’s all about? Check out what it was like last year in the video below:
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If I were an SME today and I’d just started a business or I was growing a business in my early days, I’d be here at the Show, because I want to learn more and more about all the different forms of funding available, meet potential funders every year, meet with fellow entrepreneurs and learn from them, learn from the speakers, who are very experienced.Lord Bilimoria of Cobra Beer

Picture Richard

My mission is to help entrepreneurs to set-up and grow their business. So, the Business Funding Show is a perfect event for this, as it’s all about helping entrepreneurs to learn how to get money and grow fast.Richard Reed of Innocent Drinks

Our very own Xavier Ballester will also be giving a workshop on raising money through angel investors!

You can get tickets here.

Latest Success Story: Repairly get their investment fix

Repairly is one of the latest company’s to come off Angel Investment Network’s funding line. The company is now gunning to fix the technology repair industry having closed a £265,000 seed round.

Repairly is disrupting the billion-dollar technology repair services industry by offering collection and delivery on broken tech. Their mission is to make it ridiculously simple to get your phone, tablet or laptop repaired.

Repairly 3

The introduction of Repairly means that people no longer have to go to the expensive Apple Store or inconvenient corner shops – customers don’t even have to leave their desk. Repairly collect, repair and return within an average of 2 hours and 6 minutes.

Fraser Williams, co-founder and CEO at Repairly, says: “Over 32,000 phones get broken everyday in the UK alone. People don’t know where to turn when this happens. Repairly turns people’s negative experience into a positive one, and if you can find delight in a phone repair, you can find it anywhere.”

Richard Edwards, the other co-founder, says: “We ensure busy people with broken technology are back up and running as soon as possible…We saw how much technology had advanced but the support for that technology was lagging behind. People were waiting for up to 2 weeks without their phone. That seems crazy in today’s technology-reliant society.”

The business was started in 2015 after Fraser Williams dropped out of University. Richard Edwards was an early team member of the online cleaning marketplace, Hassle.com, which was acquired by Rocket Internet in July 2015.

Repairly is a graduate of the UK accelerator programme Virgin Media Techstars. The seed investment came from well-reputed investors including someone whose previous company, AddLive, was acquired by Snapchat, Richard Fearn, Daniel Murray (CEO, Grabble), Richard Pleeth (Ex-Google).

Richard Fearn comments: “Repairly’s business is growing quickly into a large market, with strong unit economics and great customer reviews.”

Exciting news for Repairly; and everyone prone to breaking their smartphone!

Is Growth the Best Measure of Startup Success?

Startup Growth & Traction
Growth gets a lot of attention in the startup world. A lot of attention. If you Google “startup growth“, you’ll find a plethora of articles, blog posts and tools all suggesting that growth is the most important measure of your startup.

Paul Graham, the founder of Y Combinator, asserts that “The only essential thing is growth“.

In some sense, this attention is well-deserved. But it is often misunderstood and taken out of context.

Growth is, of course, important. Growth is a telling measure of your product/service’s popularity; and, as such, strong growth metrics are invaluable when you’re trying to raise money from investors.

But growth can, and often does, flatter to deceive. And this is something both entrepreneurs and investors should be wary of.

Entrepreneurs need to be careful because “…many founders hurt their companies by focusing on growth too soon“. This is what Sam Altman, the founder of Loopt and President of Y Combinator, wrote in a recent article on the topic of growth.

His reasoning is simple: if you focus too much on early growth and not on actually building a product people love, then at some stage you will encounter the leaky bucket problem where the customers you worked hard to onboard, leave in droves ne’er to return!

But, if you focus on building a great product then you will have better customer retention and, as a result, growth should become increasingly easy as word-of-mouth spreads.

Consider the example of AirBnB who worked and iterated for years before they got the product just right; and then it spread like wildfire because people loved it.

Equally, investors need to be careful because there are often more telling metrics indicating the potential for success of a particular company. An app, for example, may have achieved 100,000 downloads in its first week, but if 95,000 of those users had stopped using the app by the second week, then the impressive early growth suddenly appears deceptive.

So there we have it. Growth should always be important, but it is also important that entrepreneurs and investors espouse a more nuanced attitude to it than believing it to be the ultimate measure of potential and success.

FinTech Connect Event in London

FinTech Connect Live
FinTech Connect Live

We recently partnered with FinTech Connect, a company that was launched with the vision of building a platform and community for the global FinTech industry.

As part of this partnership, there are discounted tickets available to their next event in London (6th & 7th December 2016) for our readership. If you’re interested in the FinTech industry and think this might be of interest then check out the event brochure here.

If you want to attend use the code FTCL1627 to get a 25% discount on your ticket. Just head over to https://register.iqpc.com/SRSPricing.aspx?eventid=1002786

Why we should be positive about the outlook for the UK Tech scene

UK Tech Scene - London Calling

I wanted to share some thoughts I read in a post on VentureBeat by Gerard Grech, the CEO of Tech City UK, a UK-based non-profit focused on accelerating the growth of the UK’s digital economy.

The post is titled, as blog posts tend to be, “9 things you didn’t know about the UK’s tech scene“, but really delivers an incisive analysis of why investors specifically (but by extension entrepreneurs) have reason to be sanguine about the tech sector in the UK (even post-Brexit).

You can read the full article (15min read) by following the link in the title above or by clicking here

If you haven’t got 15 minutes or so, I’ve listed three of the key points here:

1. The UK is the second biggest destination in the world for VC money, on a per capita basis ($3.6 billion was invested last year, up by 70 percent from the year before!)

2. The UK is second in the world for tech startup exits, after the US. There were 135 mergers and acquisitions in the most recent quarter of 2016.

3. The UK government helps tech companies from cradle to exit with the world’s most generous tax breaks and capital gains exemptions for investors as well as visa schemes for digital innovation experts and grants for entrepreneurs.

The cause is strong!

The Lean Startup Revisited – Does it really work?

The so-called ‘Lean Startup’ methodology, coined by Silicon Valley entrepreneur Eric Ries, has come into vogue in recent years and aims to address the problem of heavy cash outlay during the early stages of your business. In other words, it advocates proving your concept as far as possible without building the finished product. It aims to take the financial risk out of building a startup (as far as that is possible!).

The Lean Startup for Entrepreneurs - Does it really work?

The lean startup methodology is all about experimentation, feedback and iteration. Or to use the vernacular of a school science teacher: hypothesis, evidence, synthesis and improvement. The idea is that rather than spending hours and hours writing a ‘perfect’ business plan, keeping your ideas hush-hush and finally launching a fully developed product in the hope that investors and consumers will be won over, you test hypotheses by collating customer feedback from your MVP (Minimum Viable Product).

The Lean Startup Experimentation Loop

For example, you could throw up a landing page selling a product/service that, as yet, does not exist, and measure the popularity and interest in it. By this means, you can calculate whether the idea is worth pursuing and how it can be optimised; or whether you should ‘pivot’ or iterate, or change the concept entirely. For more information on what lean startup means, you can visit www.theleanstartup.com/.

But in this post I want to address the question of how far this lean startup method has proven itself as viable. Ted Ladd is a professor and entrepreneur who has conducted research on this question and recently published his findings in an article for the Harvard Business Review. Click here to read the full article.

In a nutshell, he concludes that while the experimentation and customer feedback produced by following the method does impress investors and presentation panel judges, it does not necessarily indicate subsequent success. He states a number of possible reasons for this:

– Too much feedback erodes entrepreneur confidence
– Method may produce ‘false negatives’ when there is no clear rule in place to stop testing and start scaling. In other words, entrepreneurs are experimenting so much that they always end up with negative results.

This leads him to say that while the lean startup method has considerable benefits for entrepreneurs, it is important that the testing and experimentation on a micro-level is combined with a broader strategy. That way, only the priority areas are tested; and time and confidence are not wasted testing every aspect.

He ends his article with the following:

“The popularity of the lean startup method is well deserved. But, as is true of any business process, the method must be tailored and employed with reflection and constraints, not blind allegiance. Just like the new ventures it creates, it will improve as researchers and practitioners propose, test, and incorporate refinements.”

Food for thought…